Western Birds
Western Birds Western Birds solicits papers that contribute significantly to the scientific literature and that are useful and accessible to professional and amateur field ornithologists. The journal welcomes contributions from professional and amateur scientists alike. Appropriate topics include distribution, migration, status, identification, geographic variation, conservation, behavior, ecology, population dynamics, habitat requirements, the effects of pollution, and techniques for censusing, sound recording, and photographing birds in the field. Papers of general interest will be considered regardless of their geographic origin, but particularly desired are reports of studies done in or bearing on the Rocky Mountain and Pacific states and provinces, including Alaska and Hawai'i, western Texas, northwestern Mexico, and the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Western Birds

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Western Birds 45(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 45(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 45-4


The 38th Annual Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2012 Records James E. Pike, Kimball L. Garrett, and Adam J. Searcy

Effects of Natural Habitat on Pest Control in California Vineyards
Katharine A. Howard and Matthew D. Johnson

The Nominate Subspecies of the Purple Finch in California and Western North America Cameron L. Rutt, Peter Pyle, Paul W. Collins, Matthew L. Brady, James R. Tietz, and Jon L. Dunn

Roost Sites of the Black-backed Woodpecker in Burned Forest
Rodney B. Siegel, Robert L. Wilkerson, Morgan W. Tingley, and Christine A. Howell

Characteristics of Sites of Western Bluebird Nests in Managed Ponderosa Pine Forests of Washington Jeffrey M. Kozma

Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns with Motion-Activated Cameras Derek B. Hall and Paul D. Greger


Presence of the Neotropic Cormorant in Chihuahua, Mexico
Fernando Mondaca-Fernández and Israel Moreno-Contreras

Thanks to Western Birds’ Reviewers and Associate Editors

Featured Photo: Inland Records of the Black Skimmer in the Western United States Floyd E. Hayes

Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Larry Sansone of Los Angeles, California: White Wagtail (Motacilla alba), Cabrillo Beach, Los Angeles Co., California, 8 December 2012. The clean gray rump, dark base to the secondaries, and extensively dark centers to the median and greater secondary coverts specify the subspecies ocularis.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Floyd Hayes of Angwin, California: Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) over Clear Lake near Lakeport, Lake County, California, 3 July 2013, representing the northernmost inland record in western North America.

Western Birds 45(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 45(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 45-3


Persistence of the Boreal Owl in New Mexico: 1987–2012
Dale W. Stahlecker, Edward P. MacKerrow, Hira A. Walker, Jonathan P. Batkin, and Bernard R. Foy

First Successful Nesting of Swainson’s Hawk in Santa Clara County, California, since the 1800s Ryan A. Phillips, William G. Bousman, Mike Rogers, Ryan Bourbour, Breanna Martinico,
and Michael Mammoser

Reuse of Nest Sites by Pelagic Cormorants in Northern California
Ellen S. Martinsen and Joseph J. Schall

Status of Ospreys Nesting on San Francisco Bay Anthony J. Brake, Harvey A. Wilson, Robin Leong, and Allen M. Fish

First Nesting of the California Gull in New Mexico
William H. Howe and Sartor O. Williams III

Conservation Concerns for Sierra Nevada Birds Associated
with High-Severity Fire Chad T. Hanson

Call Types of the Red Crossbill in the San Gabriel, San Bernardino,
and San Jacinto Mountains, Southern California Walter Szeliga, Lance Benner, John Garrett, and Kathi Ellsworth


Interspecific Nest Parasitism by Chukar on Greater Sage-Grouse Michelle L. Fearon and Peter S. Coates

California Breeding of the Black-throated Magpie-Jay,
Including Evidence of Helping William E. Haas

A Rapid Field Assessment of the Rufous Night-Heron Population
of Palau, Micronesia Alan R. Olsen and Milang Eberdong

Book Reviews Lauren B. Harter and Eugene S. Hunn

Featured Photo: Occurrence of Amelanistic Marbled Murrelets
in Southeast Alaska and Northern British Columbia
Sean E. McAllister and Janet Neilson

Front cover photo by © Ed MacKerrow, Mountain Horizon Photographs, of Santa Fe, New Mexico: Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus), near Apache Creek, New Mexico, 29 July 2012. The bird retains chocolate-colored juvenal feathers on the throat and upper breast but is undergoing molt and shows basic plumage elsewhere. First photograph of a juvenile Boreal Owl published from New Mexico, where the species persists at the southern tip of its range in subalpine forests of the San Juan, Jemez, and Sangre de Cristo mountains.

Back cover: “Featured Photo” by © S. E. McAllister of Eureka, California: Amelanistic Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus), Glacier Bay, Alaska, 5 July 2009.


Western Birds 45(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 45(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 45-2


First Occurrence of an Atlantic Common Eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri) in the Pacific Ocean Kenneth P. Able, Alan Barron, Jon L. Dunn, Kevin E. Omland, and Larry Sansone

Abundance and Distribution of the Yellow-billed Magpie
Scott P. Crosbie, Levi E. Souza, and Holly B. Ernest

Rare Birds of Utah: The Nineteenth Report of the Utah Bird Records Committee Ryan P. O’Donnell, Steve Carr, Craig Fosdick,
Robert Bond, Rick Fridell, Steve Hedges, Colby Neuman, Ron Ryel, Terry Sadler, Jack J. Skalicky, Mark Stackhouse, and Merrill Webb

Apparent Sympatry of Two Subspecies of the White-crowned Sparrow, Zonotrichia leucophrys pugetensis and gambelii, in Washington State
Eugene S. Hunn and David Beaudette

Recent Trends in Yellow-billed Cuckoo Occurrences in Southern California, with Observations of a Foraging Cuckoo in San Diego County
Kevin B. Clark, Beth Procsal, and Mark Dodero


Nesting of the Peregrine Falcon in the Desert Southwest
Brenda J. Zaun, Joseph R. Barnett, Christa D. Weise, and Linden A. Piest

Book Reviews
Robert A. Hamilton and Lauren B. Harter

Featured Photo: The Mangrove Yellow Warbler Reaches California
Oscar Johnson and Mark J. Billings

Front cover photo by © Tom Greer of Sacramento, California: Yellow-billed Magpie (Pica nuttalli), Florin area, Sacramento County, California, 10 July 2003. Analyzed by habitat, the results of surveys in 2007 and 2008 imply a population of about 400,000 birds and substantial retraction of the range in the San Joaquin Valley.

Back cover: “Featured Photo” by © Vic Murayama of Chula Vista, California: Mangrove Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia, possibly of subspecies castaneiceps), near the mouth of the San Diego River, San Diego County, California, 13 January 2009, representing the second record of the Mangrove Warbler for California and third for the western United States of these subspecies normally restricted to mangroves along tropical coasts north to Baja California Sur and Sonora. The entirely chestnut head and a single generation of feathers in the wings indicate a definitive-plumaged male.



Western Birds 45(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 45(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 45-1


2012 Nevada Bird Records Committee Report Martin Meyers

Elevation Ranges of Birds along California’s Pacific Crest Trail Michael C. McGrann and James H. Thorne

A Population Census of the Cactus Wren in Ventura County, California Daniel S. Cooper, Linnea S. Hall, and Adam J. Searcy

Documentation by Sound Spectrogram of a Cryptic Taxon, Vireo g. gilvus, in Boulder County, Colorado Ted Floyd

Foraging Interactions of the Great Egret in Upland Habitats Cole J. Caldwell

Book Review James R. Tietz

Featured Photo: Hypermelanism in an American Pipit Ken R. Schneider

Thank You to Our Contributors

Front cover photo by © Randall Bruce of North Las Vegas, Nevada: immature Harris’s Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Boulder City, Nevada, 15 January 2012, one of four Harris’s Hawks in the area that winter. A pair nested the following summer, the first known nesting of Harris’s Hawk in Nevada

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Ken R. Schneider of San Francisco, California: hypermelanistic American Pipit (Anthus rubescens) at Menlo Park, California, 8 December 2013. Such excessive melanin in the plumage is an abnormality much less frequent than abnormal deficiency of melanin.

Western Birds 44(4) Front Cover
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Western Birds 44(4) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 44-4

Movements of the Mangrove Warbler in Baja California Sur Cheryl L. Schweizer and Robert C. Whitmore

History of the Red-necked Stint Breeding in North America Lucas H. DeCicco, Nils Warnock, and James A. Johnson

Estimating the Number of Territorial Males in Low-Density Populations of the Sooty Grouse James D. Bland

Apparent Extirpation of the Sooty Grouse from the Sky Islands of South-Central California James D. Bland


The Distribution of Bubo virginianus pinorum North and West to Washington Robert W. Dickerman

Records of the Black Merlin in New Mexico, with Comments on Its Identification Robert W. Dickerman

Behaviors of Nestling and Juvenile Black Vultures in Northwestern Mexico Marcelino Montiel-Herrera and Juan Pablo Gallo-Reynoso

Book Reviews Jeffrey L. Lincer

Featured Photo: Hybridization of the Black-footed and Laysan Albatrosses Cameron Rutt


Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Luke Eberhart-Phillips, of Bielefeld, Germany: presumed male Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis) brooding two of four chicks, Kigluaik Mountains, Seward Peninsula, Alaska, 30 June 2013, representing the species’ first confirmed nesting in North America in 37 years.

Back cover: “Featured Photos” by © Cameron Rutt of Blooming Glen, Pennsylvania: hybrid Laysan × Black-footed Albatrosses (Phoebastria immutabilis × P. nigripes) on Laysan, northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Top, presumed F1 hybrid; bottom, presumed F2 backcross to the Black-footed Albatross, paired with a likely female Black-footed Albatross.

Western Birds 44(3) Front Cover
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Western Birds 44(3) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 44-3

Seabirds New to the Eastern Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska: Response to a Changing Climate? Robert H. Day, Adrian E. Gall, Tawna C. Morgan, John R. Rose, Jonathan H. Plissner, Peter M. Sanzenbacher, Jamie D. Fenneman, Katherine J. Kuletz, and Bridget H. Watts

Third Report of the Alaska Checklist Committee, 2008–2012 Daniel D. Gibson, Lucas H. DeCicco, Robert E. Gill, Jr., Steven C. Heinl, Aaron J. Lang, Theodore G. Tobish, Jr., and Jack J. Withrow

The Importance of Agriculture to Long-billed Curlews in California’s Central Valley in fall W. David Shuford, Gary W. Page, Gary M. Langham, and Catherine M. Hickey

The 37th Annual Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2011 Records Kristie N. Nelson, Stephen C. Rottenborn, and Scott B. Terrill


Rare and Unusual Birds Observed on Tern Island, French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Phillip J. Howard, Sarah C. Harvey, and Steven M. Ritt

A Winter Record of a Little Bunting from Interior Oregon Alan Contreras and Craig Tumer

Book Reviews Héctor Gómez de Silva and Dave Krueper

Featured Photo: Dark-faced Common Murres off Central California in Fall and Winter Peter Pyle

Front cover photo by © Steven C. Heinl of Ketchikan, Alaska: Ash-throated Flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens), Ketchikan, Alaska, 7 November 2012, representing the first record for Alaska.

Back cover: “Featured Photos” by © Alan Wight of Petaluma, California: Common Murres (Uria aalge) over Cordell Bank off Bodega Bay, California, 7 October 2012, showing variation in the pattern of the head in basic plumage. Note also the white trailing edge to the secondaries on the whiter-headed bird, lacking on the darker-headed bird.

Western Birds 44(2) Front Cover
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Western Birds 44(2) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 44-2

Morphological and Molecular Evidence Confirm the First Definitive Eastern White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta c. carolinensis) for New Mexico Matthew J. Baumann, Sabrina M. McNew, and Christopher C. Witt

Chronic Low Reproductive Success of the Colonial Tricolored Blackbird from 2006 to 2011 Robert J. Meese

Diet and Home-Range Size of California Spotted Owls in a Burned Forest Monica L. Bond, Derek E. Lee, Rodney B. Siegel, and Morgan W. Tingley

Human Food Subsidies and Common Raven Occurrence in Yosemite National Park, California Cara E. Brook, David P. Bernstein, and Elizabeth A. Hadly

Genetic Evidence for Mixed Maternity at a Lark Sparrow Nest Kevin Ellison, Jeremy D. Ross, and Juan L. Bouzat


Refutation of Wyoming Nesting Record of the Pacific Wren James M. Maley, Jacob R. Saucier, and Matthew D. Carling

Lack of Recovery of the Yellow-billed Magpie from the West Nile Virus in California’s Central Valley Edward R. Pandolfino

First Record of the Red-bellied Woodpecker in Nevada Kenneth M. Burton and Leslie Scopes Anderson

California Condor Foraging on a Live California Sea Lion Pup Mike Tyner, L. Joseph Burnett, and Mike M. Stakeem

In Memoriam: Richard W. Stallcup Jon Winter

Book Reviews Matthew J. Baumann and Cole Wolf

President’s Message Edward R. Pandolfino

Featured Photo: The Subspecies of the Song Sparrow on Southeast Farallon Island and in Central California Oscar Johnson, Peter Pyle, and Jim Tietz

Front cover photo by © Gary Lindquist of Visalia, California: Common Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., California, 1 October 2012, representing a first record for California. Elsewhere in western North America, this species is known only as a casual migrant in western Alaska. The unbarred rump, evident in other photos, best distinguishes the Common Cuckoo and Oriental Cuckoo (C. optatus), also a vagrant to Alaska.

Back cover: “Featured Photos” of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Southeast Farallon Island, San Francisco Co., California. Upper by © Peter Pyle, Point Reyes Station, California: subspecies melodia, 3 November 1993. Lower by © Oscar Johnson of Santa Barbara, California: subspecies morphna, 20 September 2010.

Western Birds 44(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 44(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 44-1

A Twenty-Year Investigation of the Effects of Fire on a Coastal Sage Scrub Bird Community David J. Moriarty

2011 Nevada Bird Records Committee Report Martin Meyers

Nesting Ecology and Nest Success of the Blue Grosbeak along Two Rivers in New Mexico Jean-Luc E. Cartron, Deborah M. Finch,David L. Hawksworth, and Scott H. Stoleson

Distribution and Movement Patterns of Individual Crested Caracaras in California Kristie N. Nelson and Peter Pyle

Conspecific Nest Aggression of the Pacific Wren on Vancouver Island, British Columbia Ann Nightingale and Ron Melcer, Jr


First Record of a Surfbird in the Hawaiian Islands Eric A. VanderWerf

Common Nesting Habitats and Weights at Fledging of Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Tern Island, Hawaii Phillip J. Howard, Sarah C. Harvey, Paula L. Hartzell, Pete Leary, and Ty J. Benally

An Apparent Long-Distance Flight by a Dusky Grouse in Montana Ronald J. Kienholz and Aleen M. Kienholz

Melanistic Adult Male Northern Harrier Wintering in Idaho Robert A. Miller, Neil Paprocki, and Elizabeth H. Urban

In Memoriam: Gale Monson Richard L. Glinski

Book Review Lauren Harter

Thank You to Our Supporters

President’s Message Edward R. Pandolfino

Featured Photo: Carotenism in the Hairy Woodpecker Ron LeValley and Jeff N. Davis

Front cover photo by © Sophie Webb of Felton, California: Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus), Southeast Farallon Island, San Francisco County, California, 25 April 2012. It remained at least through February 2013 and is the first of this Atlantic species recorded in the North Pacific Ocean. Possibly the recent decrease of arctic ice allowed it to traverse the Arctic Ocean and enter the Pacific through the Bering Strait.

Back cover: “Featured Photo” by © Beth Hamel of Morgan Hill, California: Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus), Golden Gate Park, San Francisco County, California, 26 October 2012. The yellow rectrices represent an unusual case of carotenism, affecting both the type and distribution of carotenoid pigment. Yet such carotenistic Hairy Woodpeckers have been noted repeatedly in coastal northern California.

Western Birds 43(4) Front Cover
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Western Birds 43(4) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 43-4

Robert W. Dickerman: A Brief Introduction Andrew B. Johnson

Geographic Variation in Wintering Greater White-fronted Geese Richard C. Banks

Alaska Records of the Asian White-winged Scoter Jon L. Dunn, Daniel D. Gibson, Marshall J. Iliff, Gary H. Rosenberg, and Kevin J. Zimmer

A Vaux’s Swift Specimen from New Mexico with a Review of Chaetura Records from the Region Andrew B. Johnson

Differential Migration by Sex in North American Short-eared Owls Christopher C. Witt and Robert W. Dickerman

On Two Fronts: Occurrence of the House Sparrow in Alaska Daniel D. Gibson


The Wretched Riddle of Reduced Rectrices in Wrens Kevin Winker

First North American Record of the Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) Confirmed by Molecular Analysis Jack J. Withrow and Michael T. Schwitters

Classification of the House Finch of the Channel Islands, Southern California Philip Unitt

Book Review M. Ralph Browning

Featured Photo: First Documented Record of a Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula) for California John C. Sterling and Todd B. Easterla

Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Vivek Khanzode of Sunnyvale, California: Falcated Duck (Anas falcata), Colusa National Wildlife Refuge, Colusa County, California, 31 December 2011. In western North America, the Falcated Duck is known from only a few occurrences, and most away from the islands of western Alaska have been thought to represent escapees from captivity. The California Bird RecordsCommittee has accepted three records for California, including this.

Back cover: “Featured Photos” by © Todd Easterla of Rancho Cordova, California: Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Davis Wetlands, Yolo County, California, 21 August 2011. This Old World counterpart of the Semipalmated Plover breeds on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, and is a rare migrant elsewhere in western Alaska,but these photos are the first taken of the species in western North America outside Alaska.

Western Birds 43(3) Front Cover
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Western Birds 43(3) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 43-3

Fall Bird Migration on Santa Barbara Island, California Nick Lethaby, Wes Fritz, Paul W. Collins, and Peter Gaede

A Population Census of the Cactus Wren in Coastal Los Angeles County Daniel S. Cooper, Robert A. Hamilton,and Shannon D. Lucas

The 36th Annual Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2010 Records Oscar Johnson, Brian L. Sullivan, and Guy McCaskie


Snowy Plover Buried Alive by Wind-Blown Sand J. Daniel Farrar, Adam A. Kotaich, David J. Lauten, Kathleen A. Castelein, and Eleanor P. Gaines

In Memoriam: Clifford R. Lyons Jon Winter

Featured Photo: Multiple Color Abnormalities in a Wintering Mew Gull Jeff N. Davis and Len Blumin

Front cover photo by © Robert H. Doster of Chico, California: Short-tailed Albatross (Phoebastria albatrus), offshore of Ft. Bragg, Mendocino County, California, 20 May 2012. Since the species was brought to the brink of extinction in the 1930s, it has recovered to the point where small numbers are seen regularly in the northeastern Pacific and one pair colonized Midway Atoll, fledging young in 2011 and 2012.

Back cover: “Featured Photo” by © Len Blumin of Mill Valley, California: Aberrant Mew Gull at Las Gallinas wastewater ponds in Terra Linda, Marin County, California, 22 December 2007, representing the first record of a bird displaying four distinct color abnormalities.

Western Birds 43(2) Front Cover
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Western Birds 43(2) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 43-2

The California Condor in Northwestern North America Brian E. Sharp

Abundance and Site Fidelity of Migratory Birds Wintering in Riparian Habitat of Baja California Steven C. Latta, Horacio de la Cueva, and Alan B. Harper


Type Locality and Early Specimens of the Mountain Chickadee T. R. Jervis

Recent Nesting and Subspecies Identity of the Merlin in Idaho Bruce A. Haak and Scott Sawby

Book Review Kimball L. Garrett

Featured Photo: First Documentation of a Juvenile Red-necked Stint for the Lower 48 States Todd B. Easterla and Lisa Jorgensen

Thank You to Our Supporters

Front cover photo by © Gary L. Woods of Fresno, California: Arctic Loon (Gavia arctica), San Simeon Creek mouth, San Luis Obispo County, California, 14 January 2012. Small numbers of this Old World counterpart of the Pacific Loon (G. pacifica) breed in and migrate through western Alaska. Elsewhere in western North America the Arctic Loon is a casual vagrant, recorded as far south as central Baja California and as far inland as Colorado.

Back cover “Featured Photos” of a juvenile Red-necked Stint (Calidris ruficollis), Vic Fazio Wildlife Area, Yolo County, California, 30 August 2009, by © John Sterling of Woodland, California (top), and by © Todd Easterla of Rancho Cordova, California (bottom).

Western Birds 43(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 43(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 43-1


One Year of Migration Data for a Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo Juddson D. Sechrist, Eben H. Paxton, Darrell D. Ahlers, Robert H. Doster, and Vicky M. Ryan

Irruptive Migration of Chestnut-backed Chickadees to Southwestern Idaho Jay D. Carlisle

Use of Nest Boxes by Cactus Wrens in Orange County, California Robert A. Hamilton, Jutta C. Burger, and Susan H. Anon

Factors Affecting the Behavior of Brown Pelicans at a Post-Breeding Roost Sadie K. Wright, Daniel D. Roby, and Robert G. Anthony


Extension of the Breeding Range of Costa’s Hummingbird in Southern Sonora Adam Hannuksela, Teresa Skiba, Benjamin Zyla, and Amanda Proudman

Featured Photo: Extralimital Sage Sparrows on the Central Valley Floor North of the Tulare Basin with Notes on Subspecies Status and Identification John C. Sterling and Matt Brady

Front cover photo by © Todd Easterla of Rancho Cordova, California: Common Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Davis Wetlands, Yolo County, California, 21 August 2011. Though this species breeds on St. Lawrence and St. Matthew Islands in the Bering Sea, and has been recorded as a migrant elsewhere in western Alaska, the individual depicted on this issue’s cover is the first recorded elsewhere in western North America.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © John Sterling of Woodland,California: Interior Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli nevadensis), Sherman Island, Sacramento County, California, 22 November 2011 (top); Bell’s Sage Sparrow (Amphispiza belli belli), Rayhouse Road, Yolo County, California, 19 May 2007 (bottom).

Western Birds 42(4) Front Cover
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Western Birds 42(4) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 42-4


Arizona Bird Committee Report, 2005–2009 Records Gary H. Rosenberg, Kurt Radamaker, and Mark M. Stevenson

Mitochondrial DNA and Meteorological Data Suggest a Caribbean Origin for New Mexico’s First Sooty Tern Andrew B. Johnson, Sabrina M. McNew, Matthew S. Graus, and Christopher C. Witt


Northerly Extension of the Breeding Range of the Roseate Spoonbill in Sonora, Mexico Abram B. Fleishman and Naomi S. Blinick

Male-Plumaged Anna’s Hummingbird Feeds Chicks Elizabeth A. Mohr

Severe Bill Deformity of an American Kestrel Wintering in California William M. Iko and Robert J. Dusek

Book Review Mike McDonald

Featured Photo: First Evidence for Eccentric Prealternate Molt in the Indigo Bunting: Possible Implications for Adaptive Molt Strategies Jared Wolfe and Peter Pyle

Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Charles W. Melton of Hereford, Arizona: Fan-tailed Warbler (Euthlypis lachrymosa), Madera Canyon, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, 24 May 2011.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Peter Pyle of Point Reyes Station, California: Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) more than one year old, captured 18 April 2011 in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, following eccentric prealternate molt (top); Indigo Bunting more than one year old, captured 8 March 2010 in Oaxaca, Mexico, in definitive basic plumage (bottom).

Click on front covers for abstracts.
Click on back covers for Featured Photo articles

Western Birds 42(3) Front Cover
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Western Birds 42(3) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 42-3


The 35th Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2009 Records Peter Pyle, Jim Tietz, and Guy McCaskie

Purple Martin Survey Results at Tejon Ranch in the Tehachapi Mountains of California Michael D. White, Edward R. Pandolfino, and Andrea Jones

Recent Additions to the Avifauna of San Clemente Island, Including the First Record of the Bluethroat in California James E. Bradley, Justyn T. Stahl, and Jason C. Fidorra


First Records of the Short-tailed Hawk and Gray Hawk for the Baja California Peninsula Steven G. Mlodinow

Book Reviews Lauren Harter and Alan Contreras

Featured Photo: Has the Black-capped Gnatcatcher Occurred in Baja California Sur? Steven G. Mlodinow

Front cover photo by © Jill Terese Wussow of Starkville, Mississippi: Tufted Flycatcher (Mitrephanes phaeocercus), Big Bend National Park, Brewster County, Texas, 14 December 2010.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Steven G. Mlodinow of Longmont, Colorado: A bird with characteristics of the Black-capped Gnatcatcher (Polioptila nigriceps) at Todos Santos, Baja California Sur, 7 November 2010.

Western Birds 42(2) Front Cover
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Western Birds 42(2) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 42-2


Winter Habitat Associations of Diurnal Raptors in California’s Central Valley Edward R. Pandolfino, Mark P. Herzog, Stacie L. Hooper, and Zachary Smith

Trends in Riparian Songbirds Banded at Big Sur, Central California Coast Mike M. Stake and Kelly Sorenson

Nesting Success of the Yellow Warbler in a Disturbed Riparian Forest in Coastal California Matthew Timmer, David L. Suddjian, Susan Lambrecht, and Shannon Bros-Seemann

Status and Distribution of the Barred Owl in Marin County, California Scott Jennings, Renée L. Cormier, Thomas Gardali, David Press, and William W. Merklem


Important Recent Bird Records from Attu Island, Alaska Jack J. Withrow and David W. Sonneborn

Two Recent Records of the Clapper Rail from the Ballona Wetlands, Los Angeles County, California Daniel S. Cooper

Book Review Peter Pyle

Regional Reports from the Northwest Now Available on the Web Alan Contreras

Featured Photo: Attraction of Birds to Human Food in Yosemite National Park, California Douglas E. Weidemann and Floyd E. Hayes

Front cover photo by © Glen Tepke of Oakland, California: Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea), Pismo Beach, San Luis Obispo County, California, 6 November 2010, representing the second California record of this arctic species.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Floyd E. Hayes of Angwin, California: Sooty Grouse (Dendragapus fuliginosus), Glacier Point, Yosemite National Park, Mariposa County, California, 6 August 2006.

Western Birds 42(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 42(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 42-1


Elevation Ranges of Birds on the Sierra Nevada’s West Slope Rodney B. Siegel, Robert L. Wilkerson, James F. Saracco, and Zachary L. Steel

An Outpost for Desert Birds on the Coastal Slope of Southern California Kenneth L. Weaver


First Record of the Bridled Morph of the Common Murre in the Pacific Annie E. Schmidt and Pete Warzybok

Merlin Chases Passerines Flushed by Northern Harrier Scott McConnell

Book Reviews David Vander Pluym and Lori Hargrove

Featured Photo: Hybrid Townsend’s × Yellow-rumped Warblers from Oregon and Arizona Alan Contreras

Front cover photo by © Martijn Verdoes / www.agami.nl of Menlo Park, California: Great-winged Petrel (Pterodroma macroptera), Monterey Bay, Santa Cruz County, California, 18 September 2010, representing the third North American record of this Southern Hemisphere species.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Dwight Porter of Portland, Oregon: apparent hybrid Townsend’s × Audubon’s Yellow-rumped Warbler (Dendroica townsendi × .D. coronata auduboni), Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Harney County, Oregon, 6 June 2010.

Western Birds 41(4) Front Cover
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Western Birds 41(4) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 41-4


Short-tailed Hawks Nesting in the Sky Islands of the Southwest Noel F. R. Snyder, Helen A. Snyder, Narca Moore-Craig, Aaron D. Flesch, Richard A. Wagner, and Rose Ann Rowlett

An Apparent Hybrid Philadelphia × Red-eyed Vireo on Southeast Farallon Island, California Ryan S. Terrill, James R. Tietz, and Matthew L. Brady

Northern Goshawk: First Nesting Record for Santa Barbara County and Current Breeding Status in Southern California Peter A. Gaede, David Kisner, and Hugh Ranson

Diet of the Western Screech-Owl in Southeast Alaska Michelle L. Kissling, Stephen B. Lewis, and Daniel A. Cushing


A Possible Hostile Takeover of a Mated Female by a Male American Dipper Mary F. Willson and Katherine M. Hocker

Book Review Denise Wight

Virginia P. Johnson Receives WFO’s Alan M. Craig Award Philip Unitt and David E. Quady

Featured Photo: Documenting Repeated Occurrences of Individual Birds with Digital Images Peter Pyle and Brian Sullivan

Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Richard A. Wagner: Male (rear) and female Short-tailed Hawks (Buteo brachyurus) at their nest in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, 2007. Although the diet of the pair was mostly small birds, it also included Cliff Chipmunks (Eutamias dorsalis), seen here, and lizards.

Back cover “Featured Photos” (top) by © Eric Kallen of San Diego, California: Snow Bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis), Ocean Beach, San Diego County, California, 2 May 2009 and (bottom) by © Brian Sullivan of Carmel Valley, California: same individual, Point Pinos, Monterey County, California, 26 May 2009.

Western Birds 41(3) Front Cover
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Western Birds 41(3) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 41-3


The 34th Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2008 Records James E. Pike and David M. Compton

Molecular Data Confirm the First Record of the Long-billed Murrelet for New Mexico Christopher C. Witt, Matthew S. Graus, and Hira A. Walker

Counting the Countless: Estimating the Number of Least Auklets Attending the Colony on St. George Island, Alaska Heather M. Renner and Martin Renner

Winter Movements by California Spotted Owls in a Burned Landscape Monica L. Bond, Derek E. Lee, and Rodney B. Siegel


First Evidence Suggesting Hybridization between the Summer Tanager and Western Tanager Edward R. Pandolfino, Pam Risser, and Larry Risser

Killdeer Observed Depredating a Western Snowy Plover Nest David L. Riensche, Caitlin Robinson-Nilsen, and Carin High

Nesting of the Golden Eagle in the Guadalupe Valley, Baja California, Mexico Sandra Gallo-Corona and Ricardo Rodríguez-Estrella

Software and Book Reviews Rich Hoyer and Chuck Trost

Featured Photo: Carotenism in Cassin’s Finch Nancy Bell

In Memoriam: Michael J. San Miguel, 1939–2010 Michael J. San Miguel, Jr.

Front cover photo by © Mark Scheel of Sierra Madre, California: Hudsonian Godwits (Limosa haemastica), Edwards Air Force Base, Los Angeles County, California, 15 May 2010.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Nancy Bell of Livermore, Colorado: Xanthochroistic male Cassin’s Finch (Carpodacus cassinii) near Livermore, Larimer County, Colorado, 26 March 2009, in which yellow-orange has replaced the normal red.

Western Birds 41(2) Front Cover
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Western Birds 41(2) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 41-2


Noteworthy Bird Observations from the Caroline and Marshall Islands 1988–2009, Including Six New Records for Micronesia H. Douglas Pratt, Marjorie Falanruw, Mandy T. Etpison, Alan Olsen, Donald W. Buden, Peter Clement, Anuradha Gupta, Heather Ketebengang, Yalap P. Yalap, Dale R. Herter, David Klauber, Paul Pisano, Daniel S. Vice, and Gary J. Wiles

Occupancy of Habitats by Mexican Spotted Owls in Relation to Explosive Noise and Recreational Access at Los Alamos National Laboratory Charles D. Hathcock, Leslie A. Hansen, and David C. Keller


A Brown Hawk-Owl (Ninox scutulata) from Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska Alexander L. Bond and Ian L. Jones

Ladder-backed Woodpeckers Nest in Cismontane San Bernardino County, California Debbie J. House, Doug Willick, and Robert L. McKernan

Mountain Bluebird Nesting in an Arroyo Bank in Northern New Mexico Jeanne M. Fair and Laura K. Marsh

Book Reviews Jaan Lepson

Featured Photo: Differences between the Winter Plumages of the Black and Gray-crowned Rosy-Finches in New Mexico Stephen M. Fettig, Nancy S. Cox, Steven W. Cox, Raymond L. VanBuskirk, and Michael O. Hilchey

Front cover photo by © John Sterling of Woodland, California: White-chinned Petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis), off Half Moon Bay, San Mateo County, California, 18 October 2009, evidently constituting the first record of this species for California and the North Pacific Ocean; as this issue goes to press still under consideration by the California Bird Records Committee.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Stephen Fettig of Los Alamos, New Mexico: (top) female Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch, (Leucosticte tephrocotis), in the Sandia Mountains of northcentral New Mexico, 23 March 2008; (bottom) female Black Rosy-Finch (Leucosticte atrata), (left) and female Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (right) in the Sandia Mountains, 11 January 2009.

Western Birds 41(1) Front Cover
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Western Birds 41(1) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 41-1


Egg-Turning Behavior and Nest Attentiveness of the Endangered Hawaiian Goose on Kauai Wesley W. Weathers and Brenda J. Zaun

A New and Cryptic Call Type of the Red Crossbill Kenneth Irwin

A Reassessment of Homologies in the Vocal Repertoires of Phoebes D. Archibald McCallum and Nathan D. Pieplow


Ground-nesting Marbled Murrelets in Juneau, Alaska Mary F. Willson, Katherine M. Hocker, and Robert H. Armstrong

Two Oriental Turtle-Doves (Streptopelia orientalis) reach California Jon L. Dunn and Keith Hansen

Thank You to Our Supporters

A Little Bunting Reaches Baja California Sur Kurt A. Radamaker and David J. Powell

Book Reviews Chris Butler and Oscar Johnson

Featured Photo: Black-chinned Sparrow: Notes on Breeding Behavior and Nesting Ecology in San Diego County, California Lori Hargrove

Front cover photo by © Kurt A. Radamaker of Scottsdale, Arizona: Little Bunting (Emberiza pusilla), Rancho San José de Castro on the Vizcaíno Peninsula, Baja California Sur, 8 October 2008. See Radamaker and Powell, pp. 55–58, in this issue.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Jack C. Daynes of Poway, California: Black-chinned Sparrow (Spizella atrogularis), along Boulder Creek Road 5 miles west of Lake Cuyamaca, west slope of Cuyamaca Mountains, San Diego County, California.

Western Birds 40(4) Front Cover
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Western Birds 40(4) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 40-4


Recent Purple Martin Declines in the Sacramento Region of California: Recovery Implications Daniel A. Airola and Dan Kopp

Further Decline in Nest-Box Use by Vaux’s Swifts in Northeastern Oregon Evelyn L. Bull and Charles T. Collins

Use of a Nesting Platform by Gull-billed Terns and Black Skimmers at the Salton Sea, California Kathy C. Molina, Mark A. Ricca, A. Keith Miles, and Christian Schoneman

Birds of Prey and the Band-tailed Pigeon on Isla Guadalupe, Mexico Juan-Pablo Gallo-Reynoso and Ana-Luisa Figueroa-Carranza

Food Habits of Wild Turkeys in National Forests of Northern California and Central Oregon Greta M. Wengert, Mourad W. Gabriel, Ryan L. Mathis, and Thomas Hughes

Seasonal Variation in the Diet of the Barn Owl in Northwestern Nevada Abigail C. Myers, Christopher B. Goguen, and Daniel C. Rabbers


First Record of a Mangrove Yellow Warbler for Arizona Nathan K. Banfield and Patricia J. Newell

Prey Remains in Nests of Four Corners Golden Eagles, 1998–2008 Dale W. Stahlecker, David G. Mikesic, James N. White, Spin Shaffer, John P. DeLong, Mark R. Blakemore, and Craig E. Blakemore

Book Reviews Dave Trochlell and John Sterling

Featured Photo: Juvenal Plumage of the Rufous-crowned Sparrow Brad Schram

Index Daniel D. Gibson

Front cover photo by © Todd Easterla of Rancho Cordova, California: Streaked Shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas), Monterey Bay, Monterey County, California, 12 October 2008. A species of the western Pacific, the Streaked Shearwater has been substantiated once in Oregon, 18 times in California (most frequently on Monterey Bay but once inland), and once in Wyoming.

Back cover “Featured Photo” by © Brad Schram of Arroyo Grande, California: juvenile Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps), Deer Canyon, San Luis Obispo County, California, 6 August 2006. Note the pencil-streaked upper breast and sides over buff, streaked crown, and facial pattern, a paler version of the adult’s.

Western Birds 40(3) Front Cover
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Western Birds 40(3) Back cover
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Western Birds Volume 40-3


The 33rd Report of the California Bird Records Committee: 2007 Records Daniel S. Singer and Scott B. Terrill

Distribution, Abundance, and Survival of Nesting American Dippers Near Juneau, Alaska Mary F. Willson, Grey W. Pendleton, and Katherine M. Hocker

Changes in the Winter Distribution of the Rough-legged Hawk in North America Edward R. Pandolfino and Kimberly Suedkamp Wells

Nesting Success of California Least Terns at the Guerrero Negro Saltworks, Baja California Sur, Mexico, 2005 Antonio Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Roberto Carmona, and Andrea Cuellar


Sandwich Terns on Isla Rasa, Gulf of California, Mexico Enriqueta Velarde and Marisol Tordesillas

Curve-billed Thrasher Reproductive Success after a Wet Winter in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona Carroll D. Littlefield

First North American Records of the Rufous-tailed Robin (Luscinia sibilans) Lucas H. DeCicco, Steven C. Heinl, and David W. Sonneborn

Book Reviews Rich Hoyer and Alan Contreras

Featured Photo: Juvenal Plumage of the Aztec Thrush Kurt A. Radamaker

Front cover photo by © Bob Lewis of Berkeley, California: Dusky Warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus), Richmond, Contra Costa County, California, 9 October 2008, discovered by Emilie Strauss. Known in North America including Alaska from over 30 records, the Dusky is the Old World Warbler most frequent in western North America south of Alaska, with 13 records from California and 2 from Baja California.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Kurt A. Radamaker of Fountain Hills, Arizona: Aztec Thrush (Ridgwayia pinicola), recently fledged juvenile, Mesa del Companero, about 20 km west of Yecora, Sonora, Mexico, 1 September 2007.

Western Birds
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Western Birds Volume 40-2


Birds of the Ketchikan Area, Southeast Alaska Steven C. Heinl and Andrew W. Piston

Book Reviews Paul Hess, Eugene S. Hunn, and John Thomas

Featured Photo: Regional Phenotypic Variation in the Sooty Grouse Michael A. Schroeder, Steven C. Heinl, Andrew W. Piston, and Fred C. Zwickel

Western Field Ornithologists 34th Annual Meeting

Front cover photo by © Andrew W. Piston of Ward Cove, Alaska: Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Poecile rufescens), at its nest in a cavity in a stump at Vallenar Bay, Gravina Island, Alaska, 4 June 2006.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Michael A. Schroeder of Bridgeport, Washington: (top) Dusky Grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), male near Turner Valley, Alberta, 14 May 2005. This male has red apteria on the neck, apparently typical of all Dusky Grouse; (bottom) Sooty Grouse (Dendragapus fuliginosus), male south of Terrace, British Columbia, 15 May 2008. Red apteria appear to be the rule in Sooty Grouse from Terrace north through southeastern Alaska, rather than yellow as they are farther south.

Western Birds
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Western Birds Volume 40-1


The Winter Distribution of the Western Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica vanrossemi) Kathy C. Molina, Kimball L. Garrett, Keith W. Larson, and David P. Craig

First Record of Newell’s Shearwater from the Mainland of North America Philip Unitt, Meryl A. Faulkner, and Charles Swanson

Nestling Provisioning by American Dippers near Juneau, Alaska Mary F. Willson and Katherine M. Hocker


First Modern Record of the White-tailed Eagle in Hawaii Brenda J. Zaun

Egg Retrieval by the Hawaiian Goose after Attempted Predation by a Cat Brenda J. Zaun and Wesley W. Weathers

Book Reviews Alan Contreras

Featured Photo: First Record of the Variegated Flycatcher for Western North America Steven G. Mlodinow and David S. Irons

Front cover photo by © Martin Meyers of Truckee, California: Baird’s Sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii), Highland Park, Tonopah, Nye County, Nevada, 6 September 2008. First confirmed occurrence of Baird’s Sparrow in Nevada.

Back cover “Featured Photos” by © Steven G. Mlodinow of Everett, Washington: Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius), Windust Park, Franklin County, Washington, 7 September 2008. First known occurrence of this South American species in western North America and fourth known occurrence anywhere in North America.